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Archive for the ‘Pedoman & Strategi Belajar’ Category

Thinking aloud/ private speech

Posted by primastuti dewi on June 21, 2010

When we learned as infants and children,
thinking aloud or saying what we are thinking was accepted as a way of demonstrating our knowledge, or of opening ourselves to “get it right.”We sounded out words, expressed ideas, formed sentences.
When corrected, we practiced until we imitated correctly, or conformed to the model of our family, neighborhood, school, etc.

Thinking aloud was essential to our early learning.
Thinking aloud is also called private speech.


As we grow older and mature, thinking aloud is internalized, and speech shifts to communicating with others.

“Nevertheless, the need to engage in private speech never disappears.  Whenever we encounter unfamiliar or demanding activities in our lives, private speech resurfaces.  It is a tool that helps us overcome obstacles and acquire new skills”. 1

We tend to use only phrases and incomplete sentences in private speech.  What is said reflects our thoughts, but only what is puzzling, new, or challenging.  We omit what we already know or understand.  So also private speech decreases as our performance or understanding improves.

Applications of private speech in learning include planning, monitoring progress, or guiding ourselves in working through challenging tasks and mastering new skills.  It can help us manage situations and control our behavior by verbalizing our feelings, or venting to ourselves.

Private speech is a useful tool in learning. The more we engage our brain on multiple “levels,” the more we are able to make connections and retain what we learn.  We read, create images or diagrams, listen, use music or motion, talk with others (collaborative learning) and with ourselves.  Some of us like to talk things through with someone or in a group, either to help us understand or to remember better.  And some of us don’t need another person around to talk with in this process!  This can be a learning style, and a very effective one.

We use multiple senses and experiences to process and reinforce our learning, and the combination of these strategies is very individual.

Applications of private speech in learning include;

  • memorizing vocabulary by saying the words
  • appreciating poetry by “dramatising”  it
  • editing papers by reading the text aloud
  • talking through math problems to arrive at solutions

“Nevertheless, the need to engage in private speech never disappears.  Whenver we encounter unfamiliar or demanding activites in our lives, private speech resurfaces.  It is a tool that helps us overcome obstacles and acquire new skills”.
Berk. L.E, Why Children Talk to Themselves, Scientific American, November 1994, pp 78 – 83 as seen at http://www.abacon.com/berk/ica/research.html 10/23/00

“In a think-aloud activity, the teacher shares with students the thinking process…”
U.S. Department of Education, 4. Modeling is an important form of classroom support for literacy learning.
(http://www.ed.gov/pubs/StateArt/Read/idea4.html, October 30, 2000) State of the Art:  Transforming Ideas for Teaching and Learning To Read, November 1993

“Adults who are not smooth readers also read out loud, but they have learned to muffle it for social purposes – they subvocalize, or just move their lips when they read, because they know that other people will think less of them if they read out loud.  However, it is the easiest and most natural way to absorb concepts.”
Wenger, Susan, Image-Streaming, http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/1179/ 10/25/00

“As stated in Child Development, “Research has confirmed that children, like adults, use private speech when they find tasks difficult or when they made errors, and that when they use task-relevant private speech, their performance on a variety of tasks improves”
Agres, Jaime, Why do Chilren Talk to Themselves?, http://cla.calpoly.edu/~jbattenb/ling/ Student Research Papers, 10/25/00

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Radical thinking

Posted by primastuti dewi on June 21, 2010

Are you looking for new ideas? Has your path reached a dead-end?
Are your options limited, or just invisible? Often the way we experience the world is built on and bordered by our experiences! When we find ourselves in a situation, we form solutions with “shortcuts” based upon patterns we have “learned” in our lives. Most of the time, these shortcuts serve us well by providing answers based upon how we have solved problems in our past. They provide efficient rules that guide us in decision making and problem solving. This is also called a heuristic approach to learning, discovery, and problem solving.

However, these rules also can lock us into stereotypes, pre-conceived ideas, and uncritical analysis. When they are not helpful, one strategy or approach can be radical thinking, an approach to creatively engage with options!

Perhaps radical thinking may help you generate new ideas? Let’s try this radical three-screen process.

  1. First, briefly summarize your situation or challenge.
  2. Now list three radical “O’s” or options
    Think quickly and creatively. Think in terms of opposites, even contradictions.
    Brainstorm your way out-of-the-box!
  3. For each radical O, 1 – 3, enter up to three middle “O’s” or options.
  4. Prioritize the M-O’s after printing to consider the best solutions.
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Situation example 1:
My elderly grandmother can’t get to the phone in emergencies.
Opposite mode: Move her out of her house to assistive living.
One option mode: get a wireless device for her to wear that calls.

Situation example 2:
I talk too much
Opposite mode: I will be silent.
One option mode: I will practice active listening.

Situation example 3:
I am disorganized.
Opposite mode: I will do nothing.
One option mode: I will create and prioritize a “to-do list” for a few items and ignore the rest.

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Creative thinking

Posted by primastuti dewi on June 21, 2010

Nine considerations for thinking creatively
Thinking creatively is a state of mind that enables you to
approach tasks, problems, and situations with openness to alternatives.

  • Re-think:
    Look at a challenge in new or unusual ways.
  • Visualize:
    Picture your problem and its solutions. Map it!
  • Produce:
    Don’t be lazy!
  • Combine:
    Make new combinations.
  • Form relationships
    Make connections.
  • Think in opposites
  • Metaphor!  Simile!
    Build an image.
  • Fail:
    learn from experience
  • Practice patience

Nine considerations for thinking creatively:

Thinking creatively is a state of mind that enables you to
approach tasks, problems, and situations with openness to alternatives.

Being bold in considering options may help you
to re-define what you are working on,
and come up with creative alternatives:

  • An artistic challenge?
  • A strategy to winning a game?
  • A solution to a problem?

As you work through these options, consider which one or two may help you think creatively

Re-think:

Look at a challenge in new or unusual ways.
Find new ways that others are too lazy, or don’t think about, to try:
Example: Finding a job or internship.

Expand your target visits:
What class did you do well in, and what jobs might be related?
What other fields are interesting?

Market yourself: develop your “brand.”
Develop a portfolio, a list of qualifications, and or examples of your work that match each company you visit. Prepare a summary of each company you go to and how you match their interests.

Check every resource you can think of:
online Web employment sites; your school’s job search; business windows

Ask friends, friends of your parents, neighbors, teachers, and/or community leaders about opportunities and referrals

Visualize:  Picture your problem and its solutions.
Map it!

In just a couple words, summarize a challenge you are facing.
Then add three related concepts.
Then draw lines to connect the words.
Remake the map on a separate piece of paper; add images.
Play with this idea and find your solution.

Produce:

A  genius is productive.
Don’t be lazy!

Combine:

Make new combinations.
Combine and recombine ideas, images, and thoughts no matter how strange or unusual.

Form relationships; make connections.

This applies to people and objects.
Get to know the people in your area of interest that can help you improve.  Demonstrate interest in them; ask questions!  At the arrow, enter some contacts, either by name and/or by title and/or by qualification.

Opposites
Think in opposites.

Think opposite these words:
Hip hop | Flow | Employment | Organic | Blue | Nature
Then find a middle concept for one

Metaphor!  Simile!
A simile uses “like” or “as” to build an image. Examples:

The jungle’s river was like a peaceful path through a chaos of green.
The bird rose straight and fast as a rocket.
The service line moved as fast as stalled rush hour traffic.

A  metaphor is more direct:

The event was viewed through the mist of sadness.
The garden became a quilt of cared-for colors.
She led them with the carrot of reason and the stick of embarrassment.

Now create your images:
The exercise illustrates how situations can take on new meaning, problems new solutions. Enter your thought quickly for the following phrases with the first image that comes to mind.  Print, reflect, and make new connections if inspired.

The football team played as if they…

The computer screen looked…

My study schedule is a…

Fail!

Great accomplishments are often the result of chance, but chance born of many “unsuccessful” experiments. Learn from these experiences; preparation to fail is the path to success.

Patience

Some people are not recognized until their “later” years.
Paul Cézanne (1839 – 1906), French impressionist, did not have his first exhibition until age 56.
Accomplishment does not come in 10 minutes.
Give yourself 10 days, or ten years!  Practice patience.

Thanks for taking the time to consider alternative ways of approaching your life’s considerations.
We hope one or two of these tips serve you well.

May your successes and failures
bring you knowledge and peace.

Posted in Berpikir, Pedoman & Strategi Belajar | 1 Comment »

Konsep atau Pemetaan pikiran untuk belajar

Posted by primastuti dewi on June 21, 2010

Banyak dari kita sudah mempelajari subyek garis besar
di dalam kasus belajar, seperti:

  1. Item pertama
  2. Item kedua
    1. sub item
    2. sub item
      1. sub sub item
      2. sub sub item
  3. item ketiga

Hal ini merupakan pendekatan yang bersifat sangat linear, namun tidak seperti kerjanya pikiran kita.

Kenapa pemetaan?

Sebaliknya, pikiran kita bekerja seperti web sites:
sekelompok halaman atau ide atau konsep yang dihubungan satu sama lain, atau berpindah sendiri ke kelompok atau web sites yang lain.

Pembelajaran mengkombinasikan apa yang telah anda ketahui dengan apa yang ingin anda ketahui, dan menghubungkan informasi baru ini ke dalam gudang pengetahuan kita. Ingatan kita kemudian memproses ?hubungan? baru ini dan mempersiapkan untuk digunakan sewaktu-waktu.

Suatu pemetaan pikiran berfokus pada satu ide;
Konsep memetakan bekerja dengan beberapa atau banyak hal.

Kapan memetakannya?

Mengorganizasi suatu subyek Melakukan pembelajaran yang “lebih mendalam”
Mengintegrasikan pengetahuan yang lama dan baru Merevisi and mempersiapkan untuk test
Mencatat
Menggantikan ide-ide baru dalam suatu struktur Mengingat kembali
Mengkomunikasikan ide-ide yang kompleks

Gunakan pemetaan untuk meletakkan hal-hal secara perspektif, menganalisa hubungan, dan untuk membuat prioritas.

Bagaimana saya melakukan pemetaan?
Mula-mula tolaklah ide dari suatu garis besar, atau paragraf yang menggunakan kalimat-kalimat.

Kemudian berpikirlah dengan kata kuncinya atau simbol-simbol yang mewakili ide dan kata-kata.

Ambilah sebuah pensil (anda akan menghapus!) dan selembar kertas kosong (tidak bergaris) yang besar atau gunakan papan tulis dan kapur (berwarna):

  • Tulislah kata yang paling penting atau ungkapan pendek atau simbol di bagian tengah.
    Pikirkan hal ini; lingkarilah.
  • Tuliskan kata-kata penting lainnya di luar lingkaran.
    (pikirkan halaman-halaman yang berhubungan dalam suatu web sites)
    Sisakan ruang kosong untuk mengembangkan pemetaan anda untuk:

    • pengembangan lebih lanjut
    • penjelasan
    • item-item yang berkaitan
  • Bekerjalah dengan cepat
    tanpa menganalisa pekerjaan anda.
  • Ubahlah fase pertama ini.
    Pikirlah mengenai hubungan item-item yang di luar dengan yang di tengah
    Hapus dan gantilah dan pendekkan kata-kata pada ide kunci ini
    Letakkan kembali item-item penting lebih dekat satu sama lain untuk pengorganisasian yang lebih baik
    Jika memungkinkan, gunakan warna untuk mengorganisasikan informasi
    Hubungkan konsep dengan kata-kata untuk memperjelas hubungan
  • Tetaplah bekerja di bagian luar
    Dengan bebas dan cepat tambahkan kata-kata kunci dan ide-ide lainnya (anda dapat selalu menghapus!)
    Berpikirlah secara tidak umum: rekatkan halaman-halaman secara bersamaan untuk memperluas pemetaan anda; pecahkan ikatan-ikatan yang ada
    Kembangkan ke mana arah topik membawa anda ? tak terbatas oleh ukuran kertas
    Ketika anda memperluas pemetaan anda, anda akan cenderung menjadi lebih spesifik dan detail
  • Singkirkan pemetaan tersebut
    Kemudian, lanjutkan pengembangan dan revisi
    Berhenti dan pikirlah mengenai hubungan yang anda kembangkan
    Perluas pemetaan sepanjang waktu (sampai ujian tiba!)
  • Pemetaan ini adalah dokumen pembelajaran pribadi anda
    Hal ini mengkombinasikan apa yang anda ketahui dengan apa yang anda pelajari dan apa yang mungkin anda butuhkan untuk melengkapi “lukisan” anda

Lihat juga pembahasan James Cook University’s (North Queensland, Australia) mengenai pemetaan pikiran pada

Konsep pemetaan awalnya berasal dari hasil karya David Ausubel (advanced organizers). Konsep teknik pemetaan dikembangkan oleh Joseph D Novak di Cornell. “Konsep pemetaan berasal dari gerakan pembelajaran yang disebut konstruktivisme. Pada umumnya, konstruktivisme menyatakan bahwa pengetahuan awal digunakan sebagai dasar untuk mempelajari pengetahuan yang baru. Pada intinya, bagaimana kita berpikir memepengaruhi bagaimana dan apa yang kita pelajari. Konsep pemetaan mengindentifikasikan cara kita berpikir, cara kita melihat hubungan antar pengetahuan.” Grayson H. Walker, Concept Mapping and Curriculum Design, Teaching Resource Center, The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, http://www.utc.edu/Teaching-Resource-Center/concepts.html, (March 2, 2000).

Pemetaan pikiran dikembangkan oleh Tony Buzan: “The Mind Map Book: How to Use Radiant Thinking to Maximize Your Brain’s Untapped Potential”, Penguin Books, New York. Informasi lebih lanjut tersedia pada dokumen a Mind Mapping FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions). (http://www.ozemail.com.au/~caveman/Creative/Mindmap/index.html)

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Berpikir yang Cerdik

Posted by primastuti dewi on June 21, 2010

“Meskipun anda bukanlah seorang jenius, anda dapat mengunakan strategi yang sama seperti yang digunakan Aristotle dan Einstein untuk memanfaatkan kreatifitas berpikir anda dan mengatur masa depan anda lebih baik.”

Kedelapan statregi berikut ini dapat mendorong cara berpikir anda lebih produktif daripada reproduktif untuk memecahkan masalah-masalah. “Strategi-strategi ini pada umumnya ditemui pada gaya berpikir bagi orang-orang yang jenius dan kreatif di ilmu pengetahuan, kesenian, dan industri-industri sepajang sejarah.”

1. Lihatlah persoalan anda dengan berbagai cara yang berbeda dan cari perspektif baru yang belum pernah dipakai oleh orang lain (atau belum diterbitkan!)

Leonardo da Vinci percaya bahwa untuk menambah pengetahuan tentang suatu masalah dimulai dengan mempelajari cara menyusun ulang masalah tersebut dengan berbagai cara yang berbeda. Ia merasa bahwa pertama kali melihat masalah itu terlalu prubasangka. Seringkali, masalah itu dapat disusun ulang dan menjadi suatu masalah yang baru.

2. Bayangkan!

Ketika Einstein memikirkan suatu masalah, ia selalu menemukan bahwa perlu untuk merumuskan persoalannya dalam berbagai cara yang berbeda-beda yang masuk akal, termasuk menggunakan diagram-diagram. Ia membayangkan solusi-solusinya dan yakin bahwa kata-kata dan angka-angka tidak memegang peran penting dalam proses berpikirnya.

3. Hasilkan! Karakteristik anak jenius yang membedakan adalah produktivitas.

Thomas Edison memegang 1.093 paten. Dia memberikan jaminan produktivitas dengan memberikan ide-ide pada diri sendiri dan asistennya. Dalam studi dari 2.036 ilmuwan sepanjang sejarah, Dekan Keith Simonton, dari University of California di Davis, menemukan bahwa ilmuwan-ilmuwan yang dihormati tidak hanya menciptakan banyak karya-karya terkenal, tapi banyak yang buruk. Mereka tidak takut gagal, atau membuat kesalahan besar untuk meraih hasil yang hebat.

4. Buat kombinasi-kombinasi baru. Kombinasikan, and kombinasikan ulang, ide-ide, bayangan-bayangan, and pikiran-pikiran ke dalam kombinasi yang berbeda, tidak peduli akan keanehan atau ketidakwajaran.

Keturunan hukum-hukum yang menjadi dasar ilmu genetika modern berasal dari pendeta Austria, Grego Mendel, yang mengkombinasikan matematika dan biologi untuk menciptakan ilmu pengetahuan baru.

5. Bentuklah hubungan-hubungan; buatlah hubungan antara peroalan-persoalan yang berbeda

Da Vinci menemukan hubungan antara suara bel dan sebuah batu yang jatuh ke dalam air. Hal ini memungkinkan Da Vinci untuk membuat hubungan bahwa suara mengalir melalui gelombang-gelombang. Samuel Morse menciptakan stasiun-stasiun penghubung untuk tanda-tanda telegraf ketika memperhatikan stasiun-stasiun penghubung untuk kuda-kuda.

6. Berpikir secara berlawanan.

Ahli ilmu fisika Niels Bohr percaya bahwa jika andamemegang pertentangan secara bersamaan, kemudian anda menyingkirkan pikiran anda dan akal anda bergerak menuju tingkatan yang baru. Kemampuannya untuk membayangkan secara bersamaan mengenai suatu partikel dan suatu gelombang mengarah pada konsepsinya tentang prinsip saling melengkapi. Dengan menyingkirkan pikiran (logis) dapat memungkinkan akal anda untuk menciptakan sesuatu yang baru.

7. Berpikir secara metafor.

Aristotle menganggap metafora sebagai tanda yang jenius, dan percaya bahwa individual yang memiliki kapasitas untuk menerima persamaan antara dua keberadaan yang berbeda dan menghubungkannya adalah individual yang punya bakat kusus.

8. Persiapkan diri anda untuk menghadapi kesempatan.

Bilamana kita mencoba sesuatu dan gagal, kita akhirnya mengerjakan sesuatu yang lain. Hal ini adalah prinsip pertama dari kekreatifan. Kegagalan dapat menjadi produktif hanya jika kita tidak terfokus pada satu hal sebagai suatu hasil yang tidak produktif. Sebaliknya, menganalisa proses, komponen-kompnen dan bagaimana anda dapat mengubahnya untuk memperoleh hasil yang lain. Jangan bertanya, ?Mengapa saya gagal?? melainkan ?Apa yang telah saya lakukan??

Diadaptasi dengan seijin: Michalko, Michael, Thinking Like a Genius: Eight strategies used by the super creative, from Aristotle and Leonardo to Einstein and Edison (New Horizons for Learning) seperti yang dilihat dari http://www.newhorizons.org/wwart_michalko1.html, (June 15, 1999) Artikel ini pertama kali diterbitkan di THE FUTURIST, May 1998

Michael Michalko adalah pengarang buku Thinkertoys (A Handbook of Business Creativity), ThinkPak (A Brainstorming Card Set), dan Cracking Creativity: The Secrets of Creative Geniuses (Ten Speed Press, 1998).

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Berpikir Kritis

Posted by primastuti dewi on June 21, 2010

Strategi Berpikir Kritis di dalam Belajar

Studi berpikir kritis suatu subyek atau masalah dengan pengertian yang luas (terbuka).

Proses dimulai dengan sutau pernyataan apa yang akan dipelajari,
menampilkan temuan tidak terbatas dan pertimbangan kemungkinan-kemungkinan,
dan kesimpulan pola-pola pengertian yang didasarkan pada kejadian.
Alasan-alasan, penyimpangan, dan prasangka baik para pengajar maupun para ahli membandingkan dan membentuk lembaga penilaian.

Masuk dengan pikiran terbuka:

  • Jelaskan tujuan Anda, apa yang Anda ingin pelajari
    Bereskan dan yakinkan subyek Anda dengan guru Anda atau ahli.

Topik dapat dengan frase yang sederhana:
“Peran Gender di dalam permainan video game?
“Sejarah Politik Perancis di antara Perang Besar pada paruh abad ke-20?
“Penanaman Pohon Mahogoni di Amerika Tengah?
“Peraturan Perpipaan Domestik di Daerah Pinggiran Kota?
“Kosa kata dan Struktur Kerangka Manusia?

  • Pikirkan apa yang Anda ketahui tentang subyek
    Apa yang Anda sudah ketahui akan membantu Anda di dalam studi ini?
    Apa prasangka Anda?
  • Sumber apa yang penting untuk Anda, dan penentuan garis waktu Anda?
  • Memperoleh informasi
    Menutup pikiran tidak akan membuka pilihan Anda dan
    peluang kesempatan.
  • Bertanyalah
    Apa prasangka para pengarang terhadap informasi?
  • Aturlah apa yang Anda kumpulkan ke dalam pola-pola pemahaman
    Carilah kaitannya
  • Ajukan pertanyaan (lagi)
  • Pikirkan bagaimana Anda akan mendemonstrasikan pelajaran Andaesuai
    sesuai dengan topik Anda. Ya! Bagaimana Anda mencipatakan ujian
    Tentang apa yang Anda pelajari?
    Dari yang sederhana ke yang lebih sulit (1-6) terapan:
1. Daftar, label, identitas Demonstrasi Pengetahuan
2. Defininisikan, jelaskan,
ringkaskan dengan kata-kata
Anda sendiri
Pengertian/Pemahaman
3. Pecahkan, terapkan ke situasi baru Gunakan pelajaran Anda, dan terapkan
4. Bandingkan dan tentangkan, perbedaan antara item Analisis
5. Ciptakan, gabungkan, invent Sintesis
6. Alihkan, rekomendasikan, nilai Evaluasi dan jelaskan mengapa

Pikirkan di dalam aturan bagaimana membuat pelajaran Anda sebagai petualangan di dalam penjelajahan!

Ringkasan Berpikir Kritis:

  • Tentukan fakta-fakta di dalam situasi baru atau subyek tanpa prasangka
  • Tempatkan fakta-fakta dan informasi ini sedemikian rupa di dalam pola Sehingga Anda memahaminya
  • Menerima atau menolak sumber nila dan kesimpulan yang didasarkan pada  pengalaman, penilaian, dan keyakinan Anda.

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Konsentrasi

Posted by primastuti dewi on June 21, 2010

Kesenian atau latihan dalam berkonsentrasi, bejalar biologi ataupun main billiard, ialah menyisihkan ganguan dan memperhatikan apa yang kamu kerjakan. Jika anda menemukan sesuatu yang tidak anda mengerti dalam bacaan, atau jika anda mengalami kesulitan dalam mendengarkan kuliah, semoga pentunjuk-petunjuk berikut ini bisa menolong anda:

  • Melakukan kebiasaan rutine,
    jadwal belajar yang efisien
  • Belajar di lingkungan yang tenang
  • Untuk istirahat,
    kerjakan sesuatu yang lain dari kebiasaan yang anda lakukan (misalnya jalan-jalan sehabis duduk), dan lain-lain
  • Hindari mengelamun
    dengan menanyakan diri sendiri tentang bahan pelajaran sambil mempelajarinya
  • Sebelum kelas, pelajari catatan
    dari pertemuan sebelumnya dan baca bahan kuliah yang akan dibahas di kelas sehingga anda dapat mengetahui topik utama yang akan dibahas oleh dosen terlebih dahulu
  • Tunjukan perhatian anda saat di dalam kelas
    (ekspresi and sikap badan dengan penuh perhatian) untuk medorong semangat belajar anda
  • Hindari ganguan
    dengan duduk di depan kelas jauh dari ganguan teman sekelas dan dengan memperhatikan dosen sehingga dapat mendengarkan dan menulis catatan yang baik

Sumber:  J. R. Hayes, The Complete Problem Solver, Franklin Institute Press, 1981

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Studying with multiple sources

Posted by primastuti dewi on June 21, 2010

Course information can be delivered
through a variety of formats:

Lectures
by teacher or guests
Textbooks Fictional story/novels
Interviews and biographies
eyewitness accounts or commentaries
Duplicates/hand-outs
of (text) chapters, magazine articles
Original source material
as diaries, government documents,
proceedings, minutes
Electronic media
such as videos, radio programs
Internet
web site pages, discussion groups

Stahl, et al (1998) found that using multiple-text sources can only be effective if we are taught to use them properly.  As beginners, we tend to be more consistent in what information we select from short, well-constructed texts.  Longer, less structured documents tend to be more confusing.

Text books

  • provide a foundation of facts and viewpoints to provide an overview
  • sequence information and facts to understand issues
  • create a context for comparing and understanding other sources
  • are written in a neutral, objective tone

Problems with a single text
for a subject or course include:

  • information is often “academic”
    lacking the drama of real life experience, adventure, and experimentation
  • bias is hidden or concealed
    ignoring competing facts, priorities, minority viewpoints
  • a single interpretation limits how reported facts are prioritized/sequenced
    restricting viewpoint (Euro/Caucasian) or subject testing (white male)
  • original/eyewitness sources of information are secondary to interpretative accounts

Additional readings and alternative sources
of information can assist you to

  • create a richer understanding
    with additional information and perspective
  • interact or engage with facts, actors, circumstances
    of the material
  • practice and familiarize
    yourself with new subject vocabulary and concepts
  • process opposing, even conflicting,
    points of view in order to assess, evaluate, defend

Conflicting information however can impede your learning,
unless you can

  • analyze it for commonalties
  • reorganize or synthesize
    your model for understanding it
  • consider the impact of, and evaluate, conflicts
  • filter it with athe context presented in the basic text

Some Recommendations:

  • Read your text
    to provide the factual framework from which to begin
    (see also Taking notes from a text book)
  • Proceed to shorter, more focused sources
    of information expecially if you are inexpereinced in the subject
  • Practice with multiple texts to improve your evaluative skills:
    • compare and contrast your sources
    • analyze them for bias or viewpoint
    • note when and where they were written, and how that affects the viewpoint
  • Understand the connections
    between events, actors, and circumstances rather than learn a series of “facts” which can be easily be forgotten
  • Use in-class or on-line discussion time
    to test your understanding and ask questions!

Inspired and adapted from the study “What Happens When Students Read Multiple Source Documents in History?” Co-authors: Steven A. Stahl, Cynthia R. Hynd, Bruce K. Britton, Mary M. McNish (University of Georgia) and Dennis Bosquet (Clarke County School District) as found at http://curry.edschool.virginia.edu/go/clic/nrrc/hist_r45.html (May 11, 00).

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Create, and study with, flashcards

Posted by primastuti dewi on June 21, 2010

This  simple study technique has proved to be one of the most effective study strategies for memorizing, used

    • Best in quick or brief periods of time
      and cost-effective in terms of time and money
    • Conveniently “chunked” in small packs (Rule of 7-9 items)
      at bus stops, on walks, in a line, etc.
    • Either individually, paired, or in a group
    • As a simple 3 x 5 card or a computerized program
    • As a handy note-taking strategy
    • As a matching game
    • increased in difficulty
      putting easy ones aside and focusing on the more difficult
    • For quick review
    • With words, pictures, illustrations, etc.
    • Walking or pacing, spoken outloud, etc. taking advantage of alternate learning styles
    • Distributed physically about a room for visualized identity
      or the “Method of places”

Using flash cards is a very effective strategy for studying.
Flash cards are two-sided study aids that have

a cue, a question, a concept on one side
the “answer” on the other or opposite side:

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Index study system

Posted by primastuti dewi on June 21, 2010

Here is a method of studying that gives you

an accurate perception of how well you know the material,
and forces you to think about it, rather than just look over it.

  • Review your notes and readings frequently, so the material is “fresh”
  • As you’re reading your text or reviewing your notes,
    write down questions about the material.
    Imagine you’re teaching the course. What questions would you ask on the exam?
  • Keep track of any terms you need to know
  • Try the index card system:
  1. Write each question or term on the back of an index card
  2. On the front of each index card, write an answer
    or an explanation for the question or term on the back.
    Use your notes and text for a reference, but put the answer or explanation in your own words whenever possible
  3. Shuffle the index cards
    so you can’t figure out any answers based on their location in the deck
  4. Look at the card on the top of the deck:
    Try to answer the question or explain the term.
    If you know it, great! Put it on the bottom of the deck.
    If you don’t know it, look at the answer, and put it a few cards down in the deck (so you’ll come back to it soon)
  5. Proceed through the deck of cards until you know all of the information

Some Tips:

  • Carry your cards with you everywhere.
    Take advantage of little pockets of time.
    Test yourself while you’re waiting on line, riding the bus, etc.
  • If you think you know an answer,
    but can’t put it into words, you probably don’t know it well enough.
    Explaining the information is a good way to be sure that you know it.
    It’s also a good way to prevent test anxiety
  • Test yourself someplace where nobody can see you
    and recite the answers out loud.
    That’s the best way to be sure that you can explain them
  • Study with a friend from your class.
    You can share ideas and help each other out with concepts.
    You can use each other to make sure that you’re explaining your answers adequately

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