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Studying with multiple sources

Posted by primastuti dewi on June 21, 2010

Course information can be delivered
through a variety of formats:

by teacher or guests
Textbooks Fictional story/novels
Interviews and biographies
eyewitness accounts or commentaries
of (text) chapters, magazine articles
Original source material
as diaries, government documents,
proceedings, minutes
Electronic media
such as videos, radio programs
web site pages, discussion groups

Stahl, et al (1998) found that using multiple-text sources can only be effective if we are taught to use them properly.  As beginners, we tend to be more consistent in what information we select from short, well-constructed texts.  Longer, less structured documents tend to be more confusing.

Text books

  • provide a foundation of facts and viewpoints to provide an overview
  • sequence information and facts to understand issues
  • create a context for comparing and understanding other sources
  • are written in a neutral, objective tone

Problems with a single text
for a subject or course include:

  • information is often “academic”
    lacking the drama of real life experience, adventure, and experimentation
  • bias is hidden or concealed
    ignoring competing facts, priorities, minority viewpoints
  • a single interpretation limits how reported facts are prioritized/sequenced
    restricting viewpoint (Euro/Caucasian) or subject testing (white male)
  • original/eyewitness sources of information are secondary to interpretative accounts

Additional readings and alternative sources
of information can assist you to

  • create a richer understanding
    with additional information and perspective
  • interact or engage with facts, actors, circumstances
    of the material
  • practice and familiarize
    yourself with new subject vocabulary and concepts
  • process opposing, even conflicting,
    points of view in order to assess, evaluate, defend

Conflicting information however can impede your learning,
unless you can

  • analyze it for commonalties
  • reorganize or synthesize
    your model for understanding it
  • consider the impact of, and evaluate, conflicts
  • filter it with athe context presented in the basic text

Some Recommendations:

  • Read your text
    to provide the factual framework from which to begin
    (see also Taking notes from a text book)
  • Proceed to shorter, more focused sources
    of information expecially if you are inexpereinced in the subject
  • Practice with multiple texts to improve your evaluative skills:
    • compare and contrast your sources
    • analyze them for bias or viewpoint
    • note when and where they were written, and how that affects the viewpoint
  • Understand the connections
    between events, actors, and circumstances rather than learn a series of “facts” which can be easily be forgotten
  • Use in-class or on-line discussion time
    to test your understanding and ask questions!

Inspired and adapted from the study “What Happens When Students Read Multiple Source Documents in History?” Co-authors: Steven A. Stahl, Cynthia R. Hynd, Bruce K. Britton, Mary M. McNish (University of Georgia) and Dennis Bosquet (Clarke County School District) as found at (May 11, 00).


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Create, and study with, flashcards

Posted by primastuti dewi on June 21, 2010

This  simple study technique has proved to be one of the most effective study strategies for memorizing, used

    • Best in quick or brief periods of time
      and cost-effective in terms of time and money
    • Conveniently “chunked” in small packs (Rule of 7-9 items)
      at bus stops, on walks, in a line, etc.
    • Either individually, paired, or in a group
    • As a simple 3 x 5 card or a computerized program
    • As a handy note-taking strategy
    • As a matching game
    • increased in difficulty
      putting easy ones aside and focusing on the more difficult
    • For quick review
    • With words, pictures, illustrations, etc.
    • Walking or pacing, spoken outloud, etc. taking advantage of alternate learning styles
    • Distributed physically about a room for visualized identity
      or the “Method of places”

Using flash cards is a very effective strategy for studying.
Flash cards are two-sided study aids that have

a cue, a question, a concept on one side
the “answer” on the other or opposite side:

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Index study system

Posted by primastuti dewi on June 21, 2010

Here is a method of studying that gives you

an accurate perception of how well you know the material,
and forces you to think about it, rather than just look over it.

  • Review your notes and readings frequently, so the material is “fresh”
  • As you’re reading your text or reviewing your notes,
    write down questions about the material.
    Imagine you’re teaching the course. What questions would you ask on the exam?
  • Keep track of any terms you need to know
  • Try the index card system:
  1. Write each question or term on the back of an index card
  2. On the front of each index card, write an answer
    or an explanation for the question or term on the back.
    Use your notes and text for a reference, but put the answer or explanation in your own words whenever possible
  3. Shuffle the index cards
    so you can’t figure out any answers based on their location in the deck
  4. Look at the card on the top of the deck:
    Try to answer the question or explain the term.
    If you know it, great! Put it on the bottom of the deck.
    If you don’t know it, look at the answer, and put it a few cards down in the deck (so you’ll come back to it soon)
  5. Proceed through the deck of cards until you know all of the information

Some Tips:

  • Carry your cards with you everywhere.
    Take advantage of little pockets of time.
    Test yourself while you’re waiting on line, riding the bus, etc.
  • If you think you know an answer,
    but can’t put it into words, you probably don’t know it well enough.
    Explaining the information is a good way to be sure that you know it.
    It’s also a good way to prevent test anxiety
  • Test yourself someplace where nobody can see you
    and recite the answers out loud.
    That’s the best way to be sure that you can explain them
  • Study with a friend from your class.
    You can share ideas and help each other out with concepts.
    You can use each other to make sure that you’re explaining your answers adequately

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Sistem Belajar “ASPIRE”

Posted by primastuti dewi on June 21, 2010

Ada salah satu tip dalam mengembangkan sistem belajar yang efektif dan efisien.
Sistem belajar ini dikenal dengan “
ASPIRE” (English), yang terdiri dari

Suasana Hati:
Ciptakan selalu mood yang positif untuk belajar. Ini bisa dilakukan dengan menentukan waktu, lingkungan dan sikap belajar yang sesuai dengan pribadimu.

Tandai informasi bahan pelajaran yang TIDAK kamu mengerti dalam satu unit.   Fokuskan pada unit tersebut atau melakukan beberapa kelompok latihan untuk unit itu.

Setelah belajar satu unit, berhentilah dan ulang bahan dari unit tersebut dengan kata-kata yang kamu buat SENDIRI.

Kembalilah pada unit yang tidak kamu mengerti dan PELAJARI KEMBALI keterangan yang ada.  Lihatlah informasi yang terkait pada artikel, buku teks atau sumber lainnya, atau diskusikan dengan teman atau guru/dosen.

Pada langkah ini, tanyakan tiga persoalan berikut terhadap materi yang telah kamu pelajari:

  • Andaikan saya bertemu dengan penulis materi tersebut, pertanyaan atau kritik apa yang hendak saya ajukan?
  • Bagaimana saya bisa mengaplikasikan materi tersebut ke dalam hal yang saya sukai?
  • Bagaimana saya bisa membuat informasi ini menjadi menarik dan mudah dipahami oleh siswa/mahasiswa lainnya?

Pelajari Kembali:
Pelajari kembali materi pelajaran yang sudah dipelajari.  Ingatlah strategi yang telah membantu kamu mengerti dan/atau mengingat informasi.  Jadi, terapkan strategi tersebut untuk cara belajarmu berikutnya.

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Menggunakan Daya Ingat secara Efektif

Posted by primastuti dewi on June 21, 2010

Teknik-teknik berikut digunakan secara bersama-sama dengan huruf, imej, peta, yang membantu ingatan Anda.

Anda juga dapat memperoleh melalui teknik-teknik ini, yang mencoba memikirkan strategi yang akan berguna bagi Anda!
Beberapa orang menggunakan sejumlah huruf, imej, atau lagu.
Masing-masing tergantung pada apakah cocok dengan Anda, atau apakah berguna terhadap cara Anda berpikir.

1. Akronim
Akronim adalah suatu temuan gabungan huruf. Setiap huruf mengisyaratkan atau menyarankan sesuatu, sebagai pokok yang perlu Anda ingat.

PEMDAS, rangkaian pemecahan atau pengevaluasian persamaan matematika.
Tanda kurung | Eksponen (pangkat dalam matematika)| Perkalian| Pembagian| Penambahan| Pengurangan

ROY G. BIV, aneka warna yang kelihatan
Merah, Jingga
, Kuning, Hijau, Biru, Nila, Ungu

IPMAT, tingkatan pembagian sel
nterphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telephase

2. Sanjak (huruf awal/akhir setiap kata di dalam sajak) adalah temuan kalimat atau puisi dengan huruf pertama sebagai kunci:
Huruf pertama setiap kata adalah isyarat ke arah suatu ide yang Anda perlukan untuk mengingat.

Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally (PEMDAS, above)
rangkaian pemecahan atau pengevaluasian persamaan matematika

Parenthesis | Exponents | Multiplication | Division | Addition | Subtraction

Every Good Boy Dererves Fun Sanjak untuk mengingat rangkaian (tangga) nada musik (G-kunci nada musik bidang permusikan)–E, G, B, D, F
Lihat juga:  Silva Rhetoricae; Acrostics for Children;

3. Kunci Persajakan: ( untuk daftar perintah atau tanpa perintah)
Pertama, hafal kata kunci yang dapat digabungkan dengan angka.

Contoh:  bun (kue, sanggul) = one (satu); shoe (sepatu) = two (dua), tree (pohon) = three (tiga), door (pintu) = , hive (sarang) = five (lima), dsb.
Ciptakan suatu imej tentang pokok-pokok ini yang Anda perlukan untuk mengingat dengan kata kunci.

Empat kelompok makanan dasar ? produksi harian; daging, ikan, unggas, beras, buah dan sayuran. Pikirkan keju dengan kue (satu), persediaan hidup dengan sepatu (dua),
satu karung beras tergantung di sebuah pohon (tiga), sebuah pintu ke ruangan persediaan buah dan sayuran (empat).

4. Metode Loci: (untuk kira-kira 20 pokok atau item)
Pilih suatu lokasi yang Anda kenal dengan baik
Baik untuk pelajar-pelajar ilmu gerak!

Bayangkan Anda sendiri berjalan melalui lokasi itu, memilih dengan jelas tempat-tempat secara pasti?pintu, sofa, pendingin, rak, dsb. Bayangkan diri Anda meletakkan obyek-obyek yang Anda perlukan ke setiap tempat ini dengan berjalan langsung melalui lokasi ini.

Sekali lagi, Anda memerlukan patokan arah secara jelas ke lokasi obyek-obyek untuk memudahkan obyek-obyek tersebut ditemukan kembali.

George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, dan Richard Nixon, Anda dapat bayangkan berjalan ke pintu lokasi Anda dan melihat selembar uang dollar di pintu, ketika Anda membuka pintu Jefferson sedang berbaring di sofa dan Nixon sedang makan tanpa alat pendingin.

5. Metode Kata Kunci (untuk kosa kata bahasa asing)

Pertama, sesudah memutuskan kata asing yang Anda perlukan untuk mengingat, pilihlah kata kunci dalam bahasa Inggris yang berbunyi seperti kata asing.
Kemudian, bayangkan suatu imej yang mengandung kata kunci bahasa asing dengan makna bahasa Inggris.
Sebagai contoh, Menurut bahasa Spanyol kata “cabina” berarti “phone booth” (tempat tilpon) Untuk kata kunci bahasa Inggris, Anda boleh memikirkan “cab in a … .” Anda kemudian akan menemukan suatu imej ?a cab trying to fit in a phone booth?. Apabila Anda melihat kata ?cabina” saat ujian, Anda harus mungkin mengembalikan imej tentang ?cab? dan Anda harus menemukan kembali definisi ?phone booth?.

6. Imej -Teknik Penamaan: (untuk mengingat nama-nama)

Temuan yang sederhana dalam hubungan apa saja antara nama dan sifat-sifat fisik seseorang. Sebagai contoh, kalau Anda mengingat nama Shirley Temple, Anda boleh melekatkan nama itu dengan kenangan bahwa ia mempunyai rambut keriting sekitar pelipisnya. ?curly?(bersajak dengan Sherly).

7. Merangkai : (untuk daftar perintah dan yang bukan)

Ciptakan sebuah cerita di mana setiap kata atau ide memungkinkan Anda mengingat kembali ide berikutnya yang Anda perlukan. Kalau Anda ingat kata Napoleon, telinga, pintu, dan Jerman, Anda akan menemukan cerita Napoleon dengan telinganya ke pintu untuk mendengar orang berbicara bahasa Jerman.

Lihat juga:

Alat.alat berpikir:  Memory Improvement Techniques

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Belajar efektif

Posted by primastuti dewi on June 21, 2010

  • Bertanggung jawab atas dirimu sendiri.
    Tanggung jawab merupakan tolok ukur sederhana di mana kamu sudah mulai berusaha menentukan sendiri prioritas, waktu dan sumber-sumber terpercaya dalam mencapai kesuksesan belajar.
  • Pusatkan dirimu terhadap nilai dan prinsip yang kamu percaya.
    Tentukan sendiri mana yang penting bagi dirimu.  Jangan biarkan teman atau orang lain mendikte kamu apa yang penting.
  • Kerjakan dulu mana yang penting.
    Kerjakanlah dulu prioritas-prioritas yang telah kamu tentukan sendiri.  Jangan biarkan orang lain atau hal lain memecahkan perhatianmu dari tujuanmu.
  • Anggap dirimu berada dalam situasi “co-opetition” (bukan situasi “win-win” lagi).
    “Co-opetition” merupakan gabungan dari kata “cooperation” (kerja sama) dan “competition” (persaingan).  Jadi, selain sebagai teman yang membantu dalam belajar bersama dan banyak memberikan masukkan/ide baru dalam mengerjakan tugas, anggaplah dia sebagai sainganmu juga dalam kelas.  Dengan begini, kamu akan selalu terpacu untuk melakukan yang terbaik (do your best) di dalam kelas.
  • Pahami orang lain, maka mereka akan memahamimu.
    Ketika kamu ingin membicarakan suatu masalah akademis dengan guru/dosenmu, misalnya mempertanyakan nilai matematika atau meminta dispensasi tambahan waktu untuk mengumpulkan tugas, tempatkan dirimu sebagai guru/dosen tersebut.  Nah, sekarang coba tanyakan pada dirimu, kira-kira argumen apa yang paling pas untuk diberikan ketika berada dalam posisi guru/dosen tersebut.
  • Cari solusi yang lebih baik.
    Bila kamu tidak mengerti bahan yang diajarkan pada hari ini, jangan hanya membaca ulang bahan tersebut.  Coba cara lainnya.  Misalnya, diskusikan bahan tersebut dengan guru/dosen pengajar, teman, kelompok belajar atau dengan pembimbing akademismu.   Mereka akan membantumu untuk mendapatkan pemahaman yang lebih baik.
  • Tantang dirimu sendiri secara berkesinambungan.
    Dengan cara ini, belajar akan terasa mengasyikkan, dan mungkin kamu mendapatkan ide-ide yang cemerlang.

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Problem-based learning

Posted by primastuti dewi on June 21, 2010

Problem-based learning (PBL) is an exciting alternative
to traditional classroom learning.

With PBL, your teacher presents you with a problem, not lectures or assignments or exercises.Since you are not handed “content”, your learning becomes active in the sense that you discover and work with content that you determine to be necessary to solve the problem.

In PBL, your teacher acts as facilitator and mentor,
rather than a source of “solutions.”

Problem based learning will provide you with opportunities to

  • examine and try out what you know
  • discover what you need to learn
  • develop your people skills for achieving higher performance in teams
  • improve your communications skills
  • state and defend positions with evidence and sound argument
  • become more flexible in processing information and meeting obligations
  • practice skills that you will need after your education

A Summary of Problem-Based Learning:
This is a simplified model–more detailed models are referenced below.

The steps can be repeated and recycled.
Steps two through five may be repeated and reviewed as new information becomes available and redefines the problem.
Step six may occur more than once–especially when teachers place emphasis on going beyond “the first draft.”

1. Explore the issues:
Your teacher introduces an “ill-structured” problem to you.
Discuss the problem statement and list its significant parts.
You may feel that you don’t know enough to solve the problem but that is the challenge!
You will have to gather information and learn new concepts, principles, or skills as you engage in the problem-solving process.

2. List “What do we know?”
What do you know to solve the problem?
This includes both what you actually know and what strengths and capabilities each team member has.
Consider or note everyone’s input, no matter how strange it may appear: it could hold a possibility!

3. Develop, and write out, the problem statement in your own words:
A problem statement should come from your/the group’s analysis of what you know, and what you will need to know to solve it. You will need:

  • a written statement
  • the agreement of your group on the statement
  • feedback on this statement from your instructor.
    (This may be optional, but is a good idea)

Note: The problem statement is often revisited and edited as new information is discovered,
or “old” information is discarded.

4. List out possible solutions
List them all, then order them from strongest to weakest
Choose the best one, or most likely to succeed

5. List actions to be taken with a timeline

  • What do we have to know and do to solve the problem?
  • How do we rank these possibilities?
  • How do these relate to our list of solutions?
    Do we agree?

6. List “What do we need to know?”
Research the knowledge and data that will support your solution
You will need to information to fill in missing gaps.

  • Discuss possible resources
    Experts, books, web sites, etc.
  • Assign and schedule research tasks, especially deadlines

If your research supports your solution,
and if there is general agreement, go to (7). If not, go to (4)

7. Write up your solution with its supporting documentation, and submit it.
You may need to present your findings and/or recommendations to a group or your classmates.
This should include the problem statement, questions, data gathered, analysis of data, and support for solutions or recommendations based on the data analysis: in short, the process and outcome.

Presenting and defending your conclusions:
The goal is to present not only your conclusions,
but the foundation upon which they rest. Prepare to

  • State clearly both the problem and your conclusion
  • Summarize the process you used, options considered, and difficulties encountered
  • Convince, not overpower
    Bring others to your side, or to consider without prejudice your supporting documentation and reason
  • Help others learn, as you have learned
  • If challenged
    and you have an answer, present it clearly
    and you don’t have an answer, acknowledge it and refer it for more consideration

Sharing your findings with teachers and students is an opportunity in demonstrating that you have learned. If you know your subject well, this will be evident. If a challenge arises that you cannot respond to, accept it as an opportunity to be explored. However, take pride in your attention to quality when you present. See also the Guide on presenting projects.

8. Review your performance
This debriefing exercise applies both to individuals and the group.
Take pride in what you have done well; learn from what you have not done well. Thomas Edison took pride in unsuccessful experiments as part of his journey to successful outcomes!

9. Celebrate your work!

Problem solving skills: To be successful, PBL requires problem solving and critical thinking skills.

See our Study Guides on Making decisions/solving problems and Thinking critically, and/or ask your teacher for help in developing collaborative skills.

The role of argument:
Through various stages of this process, you or your group will be expected to come to consensus on how to next proceed. While each member is expected to “argue” his or her viewpoint, the focus should be on the issues and reason, not personalities and emotion. If your group has difficulty, refer to your teacher for assistance as a mediator, and/or see the Guide Cooperative conflict resolution

For more on working in groups, see Learning with others in the main index.

For more on types of arguments, organization, evidence, as well as techniques in problem-based learning, see Dr. Larry D. Spence (Director, Undergraduate Learning Initiatives, Pennsylvania State University) “Problem Based learning: Lead to Learn, Learn to Lead .pdf version | .doc version

See also: Problem-based Learning, especially in the context of large classes

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Action Learning

Posted by primastuti dewi on June 21, 2010

Action learning is a learning and problem-solving strategy for organizations, whether commercial, government or non-profit.

The focus is to increase employees learning capacity within an organization
while responding to a real world challenge in a cross-departmental team.
Reflection is an important part of the experience. Your small, mutually supportive group

  • Takes advantage of its members’ own actions and experience
    The experience of “exchange” can generate fresh approaches across departmental lines (networking), and help build systemic innovation and learning capacity within the organization.
  • Begins with a period of strategic questioning of the problem
  • Sets action items and goals
  • Regroups to analyze progress
    Reflects upon, and documents, the process

Groups are formed to solve real problems, not to make recommendations.
They are empowered and trusted with the necessary resources to take on the issue,
and as a derivative can present the organization with new procedures
that build the productive power of the organization

  • The context:
    Organizations, whether commercial, government, or non-profit.
    Since action learning is intended first to increase the learning capacity of employees,
    then to resolve a real problem in an organizational context,
    it is not intended as classroom learning experience, or academic exercise.
  • The situation:
    Action learning begins with a clearly defined organizational opportunity or problem.

    Its objective, set by the admininistration, should be clear and significant.
    The team is fully empowered to bring the challenge to a successful conclusion.
  • The team:
    An ad hoc action team of four to eight people, voluntary or appointed,
    with diverse backgrounds, skills and experience. Team members

    • Are expected to first understand the objective,
      then commit their energy and expertise to the team process
    • Participate as equals, empowered and encouraged to contribute,
      no matter what their rank or role within the organization.
    • Share with, and learn about, fellow team members early in the experience.
      What are our backgrounds, range of expertise and skills?
      How can these contribute to resolving the situation?
      (Diversity ensures that team members will discuss and contribute out of their strengths, and in so doing teach each other on various points)
    • Establish procedures common to group learning and process, i.e.
      Active listening; accessible communication and meeting times; assigned administrative tasks, recognize emerging leadership
  • Insightful questioning and reflective listening.
    The key is to start with fresh questions, not with constructs from the past.1
    Focus first on the right questions rather than the “right answers”;
    clarify the exact nature of the problem, explore what is known and unknown.
    The more challenging the questions, the better the learning experiences and strategies.
    The more potential resources are identified, either relevant/irrelevant, available or needed,
    the more comprehensive the strategy set.
    The questioning phase also builds dialogue within the team, and generates an innovative and cross-disciplinary approach to strategic resolution.
    After this phase of questioning and reflection, action items are identified.
  • Journaling
    Keeping journals and logs facilitates later documentation for the organization,
    as well as personal progress.
    Lessons are recorded throughout the process of active learning, and at its conclusion, to benefit

    • team members in documenting responsibilities and timelines, as well as reviewing actions. for what is going right and what not-so-right, self-awareness
      learning both situational and holistic
    • individuals in reviewing their own experience and growth in the problem-solving process
    • organizations in documenting the processes for future reference, as well as building a program of implementation throughout the organization, whether for organizational review, entrepreneurial activities, …
  • Action items
    Strategies of resolution frame action items; action items promote learning.
    Group members divide tasks, set timelines,
    and individuals or sub-groups return to their respective work environments to implement them.
    Individuals are challenged both to use their range of expertise
    as well as stretch their approaches to implementation.
  • Team mid-course reviews
    At scheduled points in time, the team reconvenes to process individuals’ feedback,
    discuss progress, encounter problems, set next steps.
    If assumptions are proven wrong, a period of re-questioning is implemented, taking care to view the situation fresh; objectives and timelines are re-set if necessary.
    Progress and lessons are journaled for future analysis.
    There is no penalty for reconsidering the process and action items until the problem is resolved, or team refers the issue back to administration for further analysis.
  • Team concluding reviews; institutional review
    With reflection on the concluding process, individuals should gain from self-awareness
    within the process of experiential learning
    Organizations should realize an immediate benefit in resolving the issue, as well as multiplier effects in enhancing employees’ learning/problem solving skills, cross-departmental communications, and alternative processes of engaging with problems.
  • Coaching
    Reg Revan, founder of action learning, believed that team members
    are their best coaches, facilitators or leaders.
    If the team does not have either the experience with reflective or group processes, experiences problematic participants, or needs outside direction, an outside facilitator can be sought to assist the team, much as any resource can be accessed.
    A coach again uses a “questioning” approach to facilitate reflection and focus on the issues.  Coaching can also be a task assigned within the group.

Reg Revan introduced action learning in the mid-1940’s as Director of Education for the British National Coal Board, and continued to develop and promote its principles until his death in 2003.  It is used by a broad range of organizations, for-profit and non-profit, national and global.  The process can be simplified with the formula L = P + Q where L is learning, P is programmed (traditional) knowledge and Q is questioning to create insight.2

1. Dilworth, R. (1998). Action Learning in a Nutshell. In ITAP International. Retrieved July 25, 2008, from

2. WIAL: Action Learning Overview. In World Institute for Action Learning. Retrieved July 30, 2008, from

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Studying with ADHD: hyperactivity and attention deficit disorder

Posted by primastuti dewi on June 21, 2010

You are not alone if you have
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

About 4% of school age children are also affected.
In addition, other students have one or a few of the characteristics of ADHD.

These strategies are suggested as part of a professionally organized program of assistance. They are derived from the American description of ADHD1. However, as a student, you also have your own personal learning style, including “intelligences” (c.f. Kolb), personality types (c.f. Myers-Briggs), etc. These will be helpful to know and develop in overcoming ADHD

In class:

To help you follow instructions:

  • Simplify instructions down to a basic one or two, and build from there. Verify these with your teacher, or
  • Ask your teacher to break down assignments into steps for you to follow
Answering out of turn, or interrupting the class or teachers is normal for ADHD, but it is best to remember that you are trying to learn

  • Write your question or comment down on paper before speaking
  • Practice raising your hand before volunteering
  • Refer to our Guide on Classroom Learning
To take good notes is task for all students. These techniques may give you an advantage:

  • Bring a tape recorder to class
  • Study with a classmate taking the same class
  • Refer to our Guide on Taking Notes in Lectures
  • With ADHD, lecture is not the best form of learning. Ask your teacher for a printed summary of the lecture, or alternative methods to get the same information


To help you concentrate:

  • Find a quiet place in your home, to avoid distraction such as movement and noise of your family, pets, TV, telephones, music, etc.
  • If space in your home is limited, your parents or tutor may find space in a library, religious center, neighbor’s house, or other sympathetic place
  • Special “headsets” can block out noise and help you focus
  • get into a routine, a consistent time you study
  • Refer to our Guide on Concentration

To help you remember:

  • Develop routines/habits!
    For example, before going to school, organize your schoolwork in the same way each day. Have some one help you begin to establish this pattern
  • Keep your assignments in the same pocket of your backpack. Tell your teacher about it
  • Keep a list of things to remember in a pocket of your backpack.
To help with details

  • Review your homework
    with your parents, a classmate, a tutor
  • use grammar and spell checkers regularly for computer work

Remember that making mistakes, or overlooking details, is not for lack of intelligence, but rather a characteristic of this condition.

Help with learning

Take care of yourself; get the help you need:Patience is a challenge for those with ADHD.
If you are feeling angry, discouraged, or frustrated over your progress, find some support. Our learning involves family, teachers, professionals, as well as ourselves. We all need patience. Their messages should be steady and consistent, but try to understand if they aren’t always so.

According to the American Surgeon General “Inattention or attention deficit may not become apparent until the child enters the challenging environment of elementary school. Such children then have difficulty paying attention to details and are easily distracted by other events that are occurring at the same time; they find it difficult and unpleasant to finish their schoolwork; they put off anything that requires a sustained mental effort; they are prone to make careless mistakes, and are disorganized, losing their school books and assignments; they appear not to listen when spoken to and often fail to follow through on tasks.

… “There appears to be a “disconnect” between developmental or educational (school-based) assessments and health-related (medical practice-based) services.” (DSM-IV; Waslick & Greenhill, 1997).Mental Health, a Report from the Surgeon General, Chapter 3, as found at (December 11, 2000)

1. American description of ADHD

See also: European description of “ADHD”

Edits and revision with appreciation to Julia Nielson, Counsellor, Athabasca University, Alberta, Canada.

See also:

Being in Control. The Role of Biofeedback in Controlling ADD
by Jason Alster, MSc,
Includes a link to a bibliography on ADHD

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Learning as a student-athlete or student-performer

Posted by primastuti dewi on June 21, 2010

Indicators of a “kinesthetic intelligence” or body smarts:

  • Talented or aptitude for moving your body or handling objects
  • Well-developed and well-coordinated physical and motor skills
  • Can be effectively used for communication and productivity
  • Highly developed physical memory
    (Images in your thoughts can involve movement)

Besides in athletes and dancers, kinesthetic intelligence is found in
inventors, lab technicians, and architects;
physical therapists, chiropractors, surgeons, and dentists;
actors, sculptors, jewelers, and gardeners;
those in mechanical, construction and crafts trades;
and of course in do-it-yourselfers.

How can your kinesthetic aptitude, intelligence, and skills,
be applied to a successful academic life?

With time management:

Complete our exercise in scheduling
No “performer” would prepare for the big event without a training program and schedule.
Intentional, balanced scheduling is the foundation of the successful athlete or performer: the same principle applies to learning

There are strategies you can develop and use to be a successful (kinesthetic) learner.

  • Develop routines and habits for learning
    Schedule when you study, what you study (begin with easier subject matter to build confidence)
    Simplify instructions down to basics, and build up from there
    Practice and repeat basic elements to strengthen recall
  • Be directly engaged; move and act things out
    Jump in and try things; learn by trial and error
    Ask for real-life examples, or for an idea to be demonstrated if you don’t understand
    Seek out courses with labs and field trips
    Ask your teacher for printed summaries lectures, or alternative methods to get the same information
  • Involve all of your senses in learning.
    Use a hands-on approach constructing or modeling things
    Use concrete objects as learning aids
    Use your hands to explain things; your body to act things out
  • Be proactive in writing things down
    Put examples in note summaries
    Use pictures and photos to illustrate points
    Talk about notes with another Kinesthetic person
    Use community-based assignments in developing writing skills
  • Use concept mapping to organize information
    in order to more actively engage with what you wish to learn
  • Use technology to take advantage of your hand-eye coordination
    Multi-media technology can be used to gather and organize information from multiple sources
    Computer simulations and games can help you

    • see the big picture or system
    • work with parts of it and experiment with them
    • simulate, substitute for, and practice responses for situations that may come later in performance or the “real world”
  • Prepare yourself for exams:
    Write test questions and compare with study mates or tutors
    Write practice answers
    Role-play the exam situation before the test
    Ask if your accomplishment can be assessed through building a model, delivering a presentation, or some optional activity other than a standardized or written test

The role of the “coach”
An academic counselor, a teacher, even a tutor can act as your coach, director, or trainer.  They provide guidance, encouragement, and context for your progress:

Physical development Academic development

Seek out a single reliable coach or support “center” that

  • Provides encouragement/motivation, monitors progress, and assesses achievement
    –Provides resources for general wellness
  • Assists in developing a personal and individualized set
    of performance- and mastery-oriented academic goals that mesh with your skills and interests
    –Develop selected study skills as fundamentals of learning
  • Assists you in developing your academic team
    for mutual support in achieving goals and progress
  • Holds you accountable for academic performance
  • Provides for positive feedback and celebration

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